Sabtu, 17 Juni 2017

JOB INTERVIEW

A job interview is a one-on-one interview consisting of a conversation between a job applicant and a representative of an employer which is conducted to assess whether the applicant should be hired. Interviews are one of the most popularly used devices for employee selection. Potential job interview opportunities also include networking events and career fairs.

A job interview typically precedes the hiring decision. Besides, the job interview is considered one of the most useful tools for evaluating potential employees.
The interview is usually preceded by the evaluation of submitted resumes from interested candidates, possibly by examining job applications or reading many resumes. Next, after this screening, a small number of candidates for interviews is selected (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Job_interview).




There are several types of questions interviewers ask applicants. The type of questions asked can affect applicant reactions. Some of the common questions on the mind of the hiring manager include:
1. Tell me about yourself.
2. Do you have any health problem? Have you ever been hospitalized?
3. What do you think are your greatest strengths and weaknesses?
4. How would describe your personality?
5. Have you ever been working under stress?
6. When did you last lose your temper? Describe what happened.
7. Do you regard yourself as an ambitious person?
8. What is more important to you: status or money?
9. What excites you about the job you are doing now?
10. What worries you about the job you are doing now?
11. What makes you think that you would enjoy working for us?
12. How long do you think you'd stay with us if you were appointed?
13. How do you like your present job?
14. What are your most proud of having done in your present job?
15. What was the worst problem you have had in your present job?
16. Why do you want to leave your present job?
17. What do you think an ideal boss is like?
18. How often were you absent from your previous job?
19. Why should we hire you instead of one of the other candidates?
20. What sort of salary are you looking for?

However, in many countries laws are put into place to prevent organizations from engaging in discriminatory practices against protected classes when selecting individuals for jobs. In the United States, it is unlawful for private employers with 15 or more employees along with state and local government employers to discriminate against applicants based on the following: race, color, sex (including pregnancy), national origin, age (40 or over), disability, or genetic information (note: additional classes may be protected depending on state or local law). More specifically, an employer cannot legally "fail or refuse to hire or to discharge any individual, or otherwise discriminate against any individual with respect to his compensation, terms, conditions, or privilege of employment" or "to limit, segregate, or classify his employees or applicants for employment in any way which would deprive or tend to deprive any individual of employment opportunities or otherwise adversely affect his status as an employee" (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Job_interview).

Given these laws, organizations are limited in the types of questions they legally are allowed to ask applicants in a job interview. Asking these questions may cause discrimination against protected classes. For example, in the majority of situations it is illegal to ask the following questions in an interview as a condition of employment:
1. Do you have any physical or mental disabilities?
Such question is illegal because it is unlawful for an employer to discriminate against a qualified applicant or employee with disability.
2. When are you planning to have children?
This question classified into illegal question because sex is a federally protected class, which means an employer cannot discriminate against a male or female job applicant.
3. Will you need time off for religious holidays?
Religious discrimination is strictly prohibited. That is why such question is illegal to be asked in an interview. Employers are not allowed to make hiring decisions based on a person's religious beliefs, observances, or practices.
4. What is your nationality?
This is an illegal question because national origin is a federally protected class. Consequently, employers cannot base hiring decision on whether an applicant is from a different country or of a specific ethnicity.
5. What is your political affiliation?
Political affiliation is a personal preference and is a private thing. Everyone have freedom to choose what party they are supporting. That is why employers should not discriminate applicants against their political affiliation.

Then, how to answer those questions?
When an interviewee is asked illegal questions by the employer, He or She is always have the option to refuse to answer the question or to answer the question politely. For example, when a question about physical or mental disabilities comes out, you can answer such question by saying that you are confident that you will be able to handle the requirements of this position.
Also, when you are asked such what is your nationality, what is your political affiliation, when are you planning to have children, or will you need time off for religious holiday, you can answer by saying that you are confident that those things (nationality, political affiliation, children, and religious beliefs) will not interfere with your ability to do your job.


General questions are viewed more positively than situational or behavioral questions and 'illegal' interview questions may be perceived as negative being perceived unrelated to the job, unfair, or unclear how to answer. Using questions that discriminating unfairly in law unsurprisingly are viewed negatively with applicants less likely to accept a job offer, or to recommend the organization to others.



SOFTSKILL GROUP ASSIGNMENT #8
Asri, Ismadanti, Margaretha, Rahmaluttifah, Stacia, and Talitha
3SA01

Sabtu, 20 Mei 2017

COVER LETTER & CV ASRIJMEGITA

Hello there!

I would like to share my job application letter and my curriculum vitae. This is also to fulfill my soft skill assignment in business communication subject.
But first, I'd like to tell you about cover letter and cv briefly.
Job application letter is a letter of application for employment provides information on your qualifications for the job. Usually job application letter or as known as cover letter, is also attached a curriculum vitae (CV).
A curriculum vitae (often shortened CV or vita) is a written overview of a person's experience and other qualifications for a job opportunity. In some countries, a CV is typically the first item that a potential employer encounters regarding the job seeker and is typically used to screen applicants, often followed by an interview. CVs may also be requested for applicants to postsecondary programs, scholarships, grants and bursaries. In the 2010s, some applicants provide an electronic text of their CV to employers using email, an online employ9ment website or using a job-oriented social networking service' website, such as LinkedIn. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Curriculum_vitae)

So, below are the link of my cover letter and my CV. *just click that
I hope the example of mine can inspire you although it is not good enough (But at least, I've tried) 😊


Thank You!

Sabtu, 13 Mei 2017

NEGOTIATION


What is Negotiation?
Negotiation is a method people use to settle differences. In order to avoid argument and dispute, negotiation is needed to reach the agreement. There will be a negotiation process when each related people have different opinions, here, negotiation will play an important role to find out the best solutions of all.

What are the Negotiation Styles?

1.     Avoiding
This negotiation style is concerned with avoiding intra-personal conflict. It is characterized by sidestepping, postponing, and ignoring the issue or situation. This style of negotiation will be useful when the stakes of a negotiated outcome are not worth the investment of time or the potential for igniting conflict
2.     Accommodating
This negotiation style is concerned with the relationship between the parties. In this style of negotiation, the other side will be easily given concessions in hopes of strengthening the relationship, also will be very thoughtful to the other side which make them to be neglected their own needs, this is because they want to help the other side to get what they want
3.     Compromising
This style is in between accommodating and competing. It will be very useful to use this style when time is a concern or there is a strong relationship between the parties. In order to reach an agreement, this style need concessions from both sides. “Meet in the middle” or “Split the difference” solutions are used in this style.
4.     Collaborating
This style focuses on using problem solving methods to create value and discover mutually satisfactory agreements. Utilizes the creativity of both parties to find solutions to both sides’ interests. This style teds to be assertive about their need and cooperative with the other side.
5.     Competing
This style concerned with achieving their own goals regardless of the impact on others. This style is when one side wants to win the negotiation and the winning will make the think superior than the other side. Negotiation is viewed as a win or lose competition rather than a problem solving activity. In order to achieve their objectives, manipulative tactics such as attacks and threats are often used in this negotiation style.

Negotiation Process
In order to achieve a successful negotiation, a certain approach to negotiation is needed. The negotiation process includes the following steps:
1.     Preparation
The first step is to prepare everything that is needed to do the negotiation. This involves making sure all the pertinent facts of the situation are known in order to clarify your own position. Furthermore, before the negotiation is held, a decision needs to be taken as to when and where a meeting will take place to discuss the problem and who will attend.
2.     Discussion
During the discussion, the representatives of each side pouring their understanding of the situation and discuss it together. It will be helpful to take notes during the discussion or record the whole discussion just in case a clarification will needed in the future.  
3.     Clarifying goals
Each sides must clarify their goals. From the discussion, the goals, interests, and viewpoint of both sides need to be clarified thus future misunderstanding can be avoided. It is helpful to make a list of these things (goals, interests, and viewpoints) in order of priority. This clarification is a way to identify or establish some common ground.
4.     Negotiate Towards a Win-Win Outcome
This stage focuses on seeking for the most comfortable solutions both sides, or win-win outcomes, where both side feel they have gained positive things from this whole negotiation process. Win-win outcome is usually the best result of negotiation. Win-win outcome will be achieved if each of the point of view of both side has been taken into consideration.
5.     Agreement
Agreement can be achieved once all the things that is being negotiate has been cleared and both side feel satisfied with the outcomes. It is essential for everybody involved to keep an open mind in order to achieve an acceptable solution.
6.     Implementing a Course of Action
Based on the agreement, a course of action has to be implemented to carry through the decisions.

What are the Characteristics of Negotiation?
The characteristics of a negotiation are:

1.      There are minimum of two parties involved in a negotiation
2.      Nearly always in the form of face-to-face use of spoken language, gestures and facial expressions.
3.      Negotiation usually concerns things in the future that will come or has not happened and the negotiator wants to happen. Both parties have their own goals that they wish to achieve through the negotiation
4.      There is a clash of goals, that is, some of the goals are not shared by both parties
5.      There is an expectation of outcome by both parties in negotiation
6.      Both parties believe the outcome of the negotiation to be satisfactory
7.      Both parties are willing to compromise
8.      Both parties understand the purpose of the negotiation
9.      The end of the negotiation is the agreement taken by both parties, although the agreement is for example both parties agree to disagree.

Effect on Negotiation
A.     Positive effect
ü  In procedural terms, negotiation is probably the most flexible form of dispute resolution as it involves only those parties with an interest in the matter and their representatives. Like any method of dispute resolution, negotiation cannot guarantee that a party will be successful. However, many commentators feel that negotiations have a greater possibility of a successful outcome.
ü  The advantages of negotiation are that it limits the number of players to those involved in the dispute. This allows for a focused approach to problem solving.
ü  Assuming that the parties are negotiating in good faith, negotiation will provide the parties with the opportunity to design an agreement which reflects their interests.
ü  Negotiations may preserve and in some cases even enhance the relationship between the parties once an agreement has been reached between them.

B.     Negative effect
û  A particular negotiation may have a successful outcome. However, parties may be of unequal power and the weaker party (ies) may be placed at a disadvantage.
û  Where a party with an interest in the matter in dispute is excluded or inadequately represented in the negotiations, the agreement's value is diminished, thereby making it subject to future challenge.
û  No party can be compelled to continue negotiating. Anyone who chooses to terminate negotiations may do so at any time in the process, notwithstanding the time, effort and money that may have been invested by the other party or parties.
û  The negotiation process cannot guarantee the good faith or trustworthiness of any of the parties.
û  During the negotiations, in conveying the intentions sometimes there are any arguing with emotion that make the other party angry. Thus, it can lead to split both sides, damage business relationships and, be difficult to negotiate and make a deal in the future.




SOFTSKILL GROUP ASSIGNMENT #6
Asri, Ismadanti, Margaretha, Rahmaluttifah, Stacia, and Talitha
3SA01